Amber/Red Ale - Varying shades of red, with a bit of fruitiness. They are generally mildly bitter, but the beers vary wildly within this category.
Belgian Witbier - Light and cloudy, as they are generally unfiltered. These are very sweet, generally flavored with orange peel and coriander, which is balanced by the flavor of the unfiltered yeast.
Blonde Ale - Very light in color and body, with a slight hint of sweetness that is generally overpowered by the medium bitterness of the beer.
Bock - Medium in color, with a very mild bitterness. These beers are generally very smooth although faily heavy, and are slightly stronger than most beers.
Brown Ale - Medium in color and body. These beers have very little bitterness, are extremely smooth, and have quite a bit of sweetness from the malts.
Cider - Not beer. Generally heavily carbonated fruity drink. Not bitter at all, and very easy to drink.
Dark Lager - Very dark in color, but deceivingly light. Medium bitterness is generally overpowered by sweet malty flavors.
Dubbel - Dark red/brown in color, these are similar to Brown Ales, but stronger and sweeter.
Fruit Beer - These are typically very light in color and body. There is very little bitterness, and amounts of fruit flavor can range from almost none to completely overpowering.
Hefeweizen - Very similar to a Belgian Witbier, but it isn't quite as sweet, so the yeast flavor is a little more prominent. Also known as 'wheat'.
India Pale Ale (IPA) - There's a wide range of styles of IPA, but the prevailing flavor is hops. Different hops have all kinds of different flavors, so the flavor of these tends to be wide-ranging, with many sub-styles. Traditionally, these are characterized by their bitterness, but more recnet styles, like the New England IPA, do not have any bitterness at all. These beers are generally stronger than most others.
Kombucha - Not beer. Fermented drink made with tea, usually with fruit added. Wide range of flavors.
Lager/Pilsner - Light to medium in color, very smooth, with a wide variety of flavors.
Malt Liquor - Medium in color and body, fairly bitter, these should only be drank if you are looking for a great deal, want to get very drunk very fast, or if you are playing Edward 40-hands.
Pale Ale - Light in color, but the body can vary widely. These are usually fairly bitter, but can have a wide variety of flavors and variations.
Porter- Dark in color and usually fairly heavy (although not always), these beers tend to be flavored with chocolate, caramel, coffee, and/or vanilla.
Pumpkin - Hopefully this is obvious, but these beers have pumpkin in them. They're typically released in the fall and highly spiced with warming spices
Saison - These are medium in color, with some big spicy flavors that usually overpower (but not always), the fruitiness that is usually also present
Seltzer - If you're looking for bubbles that are easy to drink and happen to have booze in them, these are for you.
Smoked Beer - Can be applied to wide variety of styles, but the distinctive flavor is from malts roasted on an open flame.
Sour - These are a wide array of usually bright colors. Generally a very acidic taste with fruit accompanying it.
Stout - These are very similar to porters, but are generally darker and heavier. They are flavored with some of the same flavors, especially coffee, but also suit oatmeal flavor well. These are also generally stronger than other beers.
Tripel - These beers are golden in color, very strong, and have some great citrusy flavors.
Winter Beer - There are quite a few types of winter beers, but they are generally medium in color and body. There are many subtle flavors, but rarely does any individual flavor stand out. These are meant to warm the soul.